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An Extensive Guide To Interoperability And Why It Matters


What Is Interoperability?

Interoperability is the capability of different systems, devices, or applications to communicate and collaborate effectively. These systems can be of various types, such as hardware, software, or a combination of both.

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Interoperability ensures that disparate technologies can exchange data and function cohesively, making it possible for users to access and utilize services across different platforms seamlessly.

Why Is Interoperability Important?

Interoperability plays a pivotal role in modern technology for several reasons:

  • Enhanced User Experience: Interoperable systems enable users to access services and data from multiple sources without disruptions or compatibility issues.
  • Efficiency: Interoperability streamlines operations and reduces redundancy, saving time and resources.
  • Innovation: It fosters innovation by allowing developers to create new applications and services that build on existing technologies.
  • Cost Savings: Avoiding the need for complete system overhauls, interoperability can lead to significant cost savings.
  • Scalability: Interoperable systems are more adaptable and scalable, allowing organizations to grow and evolve without major technology constraints.

Types of Interoperability

Interoperability can be categorized into three main types:

Technical Interoperability

Technical interoperability focuses on ensuring that different systems and devices can communicate at a fundamental level. This involves compatibility with hardware, network protocols, and data transmission methods.

Examples include the ability of smartphones to connect to Wi-Fi networks and printers or web browsers to display websites correctly.

Semantic Interoperability

Semantic interoperability addresses the meaning and interpretation of data exchanged between systems. It goes beyond technical compatibility by ensuring that data is understood consistently across different platforms. Standardized data formats and terminologies play a crucial role in achieving semantic interoperability.

In healthcare, for instance, ensuring that electronic health records (EHRs) use common medical coding systems is vital for semantic interoperability.

Organizational Interoperability

Organizational interoperability focuses on aligning processes, policies, and procedures to enable effective communication and collaboration between different organizations or departments. It often involves establishing common practices, sharing best practices, and aligning goals and objectives.

In government, achieving organizational interoperability may involve coordinating emergency response efforts among various agencies during a crisis.

Challenges in Achieving Healthcare Interoperability

The healthcare industry stands on the brink of transformation, driven by the potential of healthcare interoperability—the seamless exchange of patient data across various systems and stakeholders.

In an ideal healthcare ecosystem, patient information would flow effortlessly between healthcare providers, insurers, pharmacies, and laboratories, enhancing patient care, reducing medical errors, and improving outcomes.

However, the journey towards healthcare interoperability is fraught with complexities and challenges that demand careful consideration and innovative solutions.

Data Standards and Formats

The healthcare industry faces significant challenges in achieving interoperability due to the diversity of data standards and formats. Various organizations and healthcare providers often use different standards for Electronic Health Records (EHRs) and other health-related data.

For instance, HL7 v2, HL7 v3, CDA, FHIR, and DICOM are just a few of the standards used. The lack of standardization makes it difficult for different systems to exchange and interpret patient data consistently.

Privacy and Security Concerns

Healthcare data is among the most sensitive and regulated information. Maintaining patient privacy and data security is paramount.

Achieving interoperability while ensuring patient data remains confidential and protected presents a significant challenge. Regulations like the GDPR in Europe or HIPAA in the US impose strict requirements on data handling and sharing, adding complexity to interoperability efforts.

Legacy Systems

Many healthcare institutions still rely on legacy systems that were implemented before the concept of interoperability gained prominence. These legacy systems often lack the necessary interfaces and modern standards required for seamless data exchange with newer systems.

Migrating or integrating with these legacy systems can be costly and time-consuming, hindering the progress toward full healthcare interoperability.

Fragmented EHR Systems

Electronic Health Record (EHR) systems are vital for healthcare data management, but they often operate in isolation. Different healthcare providers may use different EHR systems that do not communicate effectively with one another.

This fragmentation leads to fragmented patient records, making it challenging to provide comprehensive care and share patient data across different healthcare facilities. Efforts to harmonize and interconnect these systems are essential for achieving interoperability.

Lack of Semantic Interoperability

Achieving semantic interoperability is a particular challenge in healthcare. Even when technical interoperability is established, there can still be issues related to the interpretation and meaning of clinical terms and data.

Different healthcare providers may use different terminologies and coding systems, making it difficult for systems to understand and exchange data accurately. Creating and implementing standardized clinical terminologies and ontologies is an ongoing effort to address this challenge.

Ensuring that patients have control over their healthcare data is essential for interoperability.

Obtaining patient consent to share their data among different healthcare providers and systems can be complex. Effective consent management systems need to be in place to comply with regulations and patient preferences while still allowing for data exchange when necessary for patient care.

Data Quality and Accuracy

Inaccurate or incomplete patient data can lead to medical errors and hinder interoperability efforts. Maintaining data quality and accuracy is a continuous challenge, as healthcare data is often entered by multiple individuals and may be subject to errors or omissions.

Data validation and quality assurance processes are crucial for ensuring that the information exchanged between systems is reliable and safe for clinical decision-making.

Cost and Resource Constraints

Implementing interoperability solutions in healthcare requires significant financial and human resources. Many healthcare organizations, especially smaller ones, may struggle to allocate the necessary funds and expertise to embark on interoperability initiatives.

The cost of acquiring and implementing interoperable systems and training staff can be a barrier to progress.

Interoperability Governance and Coordination

Establishing governance structures and coordination mechanisms among healthcare stakeholders is essential for successful interoperability. Collaboration is needed among healthcare providers, software vendors, regulators, and standards organizations to align efforts and ensure that interoperability initiatives are cohesive and aligned with industry needs.

All in all, achieving healthcare interoperability is a complex and multifaceted endeavor. Addressing these challenges requires a concerted effort from healthcare organizations, technology vendors, regulators, and standards bodies to develop and implement solutions that prioritize patient privacy, data security, and the seamless exchange of healthcare information for improved patient care and outcomes.

Solutions for Healthcare Interoperability

This section explores the forefront of these solutions, illuminating the path towards healthcare interoperability. From the establishment of Health Information Exchanges (HIEs) to the adoption of cutting-edge standards like FHIR (Fast Healthcare Interoperability Resources), each solution plays a pivotal role in dismantling the barriers that have long hindered data sharing in the healthcare ecosystem.

Common Data Models provide a bridge between disparate systems, facilitating harmonious data exchange, while robust standards and data governance frameworks ensure that data is not just shared but shared securely, efficiently, and in a standardized manner.

Health Information Exchanges (HIEs)

Health Information Exchanges are pivotal components of healthcare interoperability infrastructure. They serve as intermediaries, facilitating the secure and standardized exchange of patient information among different healthcare entities and systems. HIEs provide a centralized platform where healthcare providers, hospitals, clinics, and even patients can access and share vital medical data.

By connecting disparate systems and organizations, HIEs bridge the information gap and ensure that critical patient information, such as medical history, lab results, and medication records, is readily available to authorized healthcare professionals when needed, regardless of the patient’s location.

FHIR (Fast Healthcare Interoperability Resources)

FHIR has emerged as a game-changer in healthcare interoperability. This modern standard defines a set of robust and flexible APIs and data formats specifically designed for healthcare data exchange.

FHIR’s RESTful architecture and resource-based approach allow for the seamless sharing of structured healthcare data. It promotes interoperability by simplifying data access and retrieval, making it easier for different healthcare systems to communicate and share patient information.

Note: To learn more, check out our Extensive Guide To FHIR.

Common Data Models

Common Data Models (or CDMs) play a critical role in standardizing and harmonizing healthcare data. These models define a uniform structure for storing and representing healthcare information, ensuring that data from different sources align and can be easily integrated.

CDMs bridge the gap between systems that may use varying terminologies and coding systems, enabling consistent data sharing and analysis. Some well-known CDMs in healthcare include OMOP (Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership) and i2b2 (Informatics for Integrating Biology and the Bedside).

Standards and Data Governance

Achieving healthcare interoperability requires adherence to rigorous standards and robust data governance practices. These standards, such as HL7, DICOM, and IHE (Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise), establish rules and guidelines for data exchange, ensuring that information is structured and transmitted consistently.

Data governance encompasses policies, procedures, and data stewardship practices that dictate how data is collected, stored, and shared while maintaining privacy, security, and compliance with regulations like GDPR or HIPAA. Effective data governance promotes transparency, accountability, and the responsible handling of healthcare data.

Blockchain Technology

In the healthcare interoperability field, blockchain technology is gaining attention for its potential to enhance security, transparency, and trust in data exchange. Blockchains provide a decentralized and tamper-resistant ledger that can record healthcare transactions and access permissions securely.

Smart contracts on blockchain networks can automate consent management and data sharing, ensuring that patient preferences are respected while enabling authorized parties to access data when necessary. Blockchain can also help maintain an immutable audit trail of data access and modifications, enhancing data governance and security.


APIs, including FHIR but not limited to it, facilitate the integration of healthcare systems and applications. They enable different software components and platforms to interact and share data programmatically.

APIs empower developers to build innovative healthcare solutions, such as telemedicine applications, remote monitoring tools, and analytics platforms, that can seamlessly connect with EHRs and other healthcare systems. The use of APIs accelerates the development of interoperable healthcare applications and services, fostering a more dynamic healthcare ecosystem.

These solutions collectively form the backbone of healthcare interoperability initiatives. By adopting and implementing these strategies and technologies, healthcare organizations can transcend the barriers that have historically impeded the flow of vital patient information. This, in turn, leads to improved patient care, better-informed clinical decisions, and a more connected and responsive healthcare system.

Real-World Applications of Healthcare Interoperability

In this section, we’ll explore how healthcare interoperability is making a real difference in how healthcare works making sure that healthcare is efficient and effective. We’ll look at how interoperability is helping patients take charge of their health decisions and changing the way we get medical care, especially when we can’t visit the doctor in person.

Lastly, we’ll see how interoperability is making personalized medicine a reality. This means treatments can be customized just for you, based on what you need. So, let’s dive into these real-world examples of how healthcare is getting better with interoperability.

Patient-Centered Care

Healthcare interoperability has ushered in a new era of patient-centered care. It enables healthcare providers to access comprehensive patient records from various sources, leading to more informed diagnoses and treatment decisions. With interoperability, a patient’s medical history, medication list, allergies, and test results are readily available to clinicians, ensuring that care is tailored to the individual’s unique needs.

Moreover, patients can actively engage in their healthcare through access to their own records, enabling them to make informed decisions about their health, treatment options, and care providers. This empowerment enhances the patient-provider relationship and promotes shared decision-making.

Public Health Surveillance

Interoperable healthcare systems play a crucial role in public health surveillance and response. During outbreaks or pandemics, the rapid sharing of data among healthcare facilities and public health agencies is essential for tracking and controlling the spread of diseases.

Healthcare interoperability allows for the real-time transmission of epidemiological data, such as disease cases, test results, and vaccination records, enabling timely interventions and containment measures. Interoperable systems also support population health management by providing insights into disease trends, enabling proactive public health initiatives and resource allocation.

Clinical Research and Trials

Healthcare interoperability is revolutionizing clinical research and trials. Researchers can access a broader pool of patient data from diverse sources, accelerating the recruitment of eligible participants and improving the generalizability of study findings. By seamlessly integrating EHR data, lab results, and patient-reported outcomes, researchers can conduct more comprehensive and efficient studies.

Interoperability also simplifies the process of data sharing and collaboration among institutions, facilitating multi-site trials and collaborative research initiatives. This results in faster development and validation of new treatments and therapies.

Telemedicine and Remote Monitoring

Interoperable systems enable secure video consultations, remote data collection, and real-time monitoring of patients’ vital signs and health metrics. Patients can share their health data with healthcare providers regardless of location, fostering continuity of care.

Additionally, telemedicine platforms can seamlessly integrate with EHRs, allowing clinicians to document virtual visits and update patient records. This not only enhances access to healthcare services but also supports the ongoing management of chronic conditions and preventive care.

Personalized Medicine

Interoperability is driving the advancement of personalized medicine, where treatment plans are tailored to an individual’s genetic makeup, lifestyle, and medical history. By integrating genomic data, clinical records, and treatment outcomes, healthcare providers can identify the most effective treatments and therapies for each patient.

Interoperable systems enable the sharing of genetic and molecular data, supporting precision medicine initiatives. This approach leads to more accurate diagnoses, targeted therapies, and reduced adverse drug reactions, ultimately improving patient outcomes.

Healthcare Analytics and Insights

Healthcare interoperability empowers organizations to harness the power of big data analytics. By aggregating and analyzing data from various sources, including EHRs, wearable devices, and claims data, healthcare providers and payers can gain valuable insights into patient populations and healthcare trends. These insights inform decision-making, allowing organizations to optimize care delivery, reduce costs, and enhance the quality of care.

Predictive analytics and machine learning applications further leverage interoperable data to identify at-risk patients, predict disease outbreaks, and improve care coordination.

These real-world applications demonstrate the transformative impact of healthcare interoperability on patient care, research, public health, and the overall healthcare ecosystem. As the healthcare industry continues to embrace interoperable solutions, it stands poised to deliver more effective, efficient, and patient-centric care, while advancing scientific knowledge and innovation.

Best Practices for Healthcare Interoperability

In this section, we’ll dive into a comprehensive set of best practices that pave the way for successful healthcare interoperability. These cover a wide range of areas, from data standardization and robust security measures to regulatory compliance, collaboration, and user training. Together, they provide a clear roadmap for organizations aiming to make the most of interoperable healthcare systems.

We’ll explore the critical importance of data standardization, strong security measures, regulatory compliance, data governance, and more. These practices serve as the foundation for maintaining the integrity of exchanged information, along with ensuring scalability and setting up effective feedback mechanisms.

Promoting Data Standardization

A key best practice in achieving healthcare interoperability is promoting data standardization. This involves adopting and adhering to common data standards, such as HL7, FHIR, and DICOM. Standardized data formats and coding systems ensure that healthcare information is structured consistently across different systems and organizations.

By standardizing terminology and data exchange protocols, healthcare stakeholders can speak a common language, facilitating seamless data sharing and interpretation.

Implementing Robust Security Measures

Implementing robust security measures safeguards patient data from unauthorized access and breaches. This includes encryption, access controls, secure APIs, and audit trails. Security audits, regular vulnerability assessments, and training staff on cybersecurity best practices are essential components of maintaining a secure interoperable environment.

Note: To learn more, read our comprehensive guide for CTOs on Medical Data Security.

Ensuring Regulatory Compliance

Healthcare operates within a heavily regulated environment, and achieving interoperability requires strict adherence to these regulations. Staying updated on the latest healthcare compliance standards includes not only patient privacy regulations but also standards related to data exchange, billing, and quality reporting.

Encouraging Collaboration and Partnerships

Healthcare providers, technology vendors, payers, and regulators need to work together to align their efforts and share best practices. Collaboration fosters innovation and the development of common interoperability frameworks. It also allows for the creation of networks and ecosystems that can efficiently exchange patient data and promote continuity of care.

User Training and Support

Effective user training and support are often underestimated but essential aspects of healthcare interoperability. Users, including healthcare providers and administrative staff, must be proficient in using interoperable systems.

Providing comprehensive training programs and support resources ensures that users can leverage the full capabilities of the technology. This reduces user errors, improves data accuracy, and enhances the overall interoperability experience.

Data Governance and Quality Assurance

Establishing strong data governance practices is critical for maintaining data integrity and quality. Healthcare organizations are expected to define clear policies and procedures for data collection, storage, and sharing.

Data stewardship roles should be designated to oversee data management. Regular data quality assessments and data validation processes help ensure that information exchanged through interoperable systems is accurate and reliable.

Interoperability Roadmaps

Developing clear interoperability roadmaps is essential for guiding organizations toward their interoperability goals. These roadmaps should outline strategic objectives, timelines, and milestones. They provide a structured approach to interoperability implementation and ensure that all stakeholders are aligned with the organization’s vision.

By adhering to these best practices, healthcare organizations can navigate the complexities of interoperability and create a foundation for improved patient care, streamlined operations, and enhanced collaboration across the healthcare ecosystem.

The healthcare landscape is rapidly changing, driven by technology and a focus on patients. Central to this transformation is healthcare interoperability—a dynamic system where data flows effortlessly, empowering patients, aiding clinical decisions, and fostering innovation.

In this section, we explore the future of healthcare interoperability, highlighting trends and innovations that will shape the next era of healthcare. These trends respond not only to technological advancements but also to evolving patient and industry needs.

These trends are reshaping healthcare interoperability, making it more patient-focused, data-driven, and innovative. They promise to deliver higher-quality care, improve patient outcomes, and propel the healthcare industry towards a brighter and more interconnected future.

Blockchain for Medical Data Exchange

The adoption of blockchain technology is poised to revolutionize medical data exchange and security. This technology ensures data integrity, privacy, and transparency. Patients can have more control over their health records, granting permission to providers and researchers as needed. Blockchain also simplifies the process of tracking the provenance of medical data, reducing fraud, and enhancing trust in the healthcare ecosystem.

Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning

The integration of artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) into healthcare interoperability is set to transform data analysis and decision-making. AI and ML algorithms can process vast amounts of healthcare data, extracting valuable insights and patterns that were previously challenging to identify. Predictive analytics can help in early disease detection, treatment optimization, and resource allocation.

Furthermore, natural language processing (NLP) capabilities enhance the understanding of unstructured data, such as clinical notes, improving data interpretation and interoperability.

Patient-Centric Interoperability

The shift towards patient-centric interoperability is a significant trend in the future of healthcare. Patients are increasingly becoming active participants in their healthcare journeys, and interoperable systems are evolving to support this paradigm. Patient-centered interoperability empowers individuals to access, control, and share their health data across providers and systems easily.

This approach fosters collaborative care, reduces duplication of tests and procedures, and enables patients to make informed decisions about their health. Personal health records (PHRs) and mobile health apps play pivotal roles in facilitating patient-centric interoperability.

IoT and Wearables Integration

The Internet of Things (IoT) and wearable devices are generating a wealth of real-time health data. Future trends in interoperability involve integrating this data seamlessly into healthcare systems.

Wearables can monitor vital signs, activity levels, and chronic conditions, transmitting data to EHRs and other healthcare platforms in real time. This enables healthcare providers to offer more personalized care, detect early warning signs, and intervene promptly in emergencies.

Genomic and Precision Medicine

As genomic sequencing becomes more accessible, interoperability is essential to unlock the full potential of precision medicine. Future trends involve integrating genomic data with patient records, enabling healthcare providers to tailor treatments based on a patient’s genetic makeup.

This approach leads to more accurate diagnoses, personalized therapies, and better treatment outcomes. Interoperable systems must support the secure sharing of genomic information while adhering to privacy regulations.

Telehealth and Virtual Care

Telehealth and virtual care have experienced unprecedented growth, and their future trends are intertwined with interoperability. These technologies require seamless integration with EHRs and other healthcare systems to ensure that patient data is accessible and up-to-date during virtual consultations.

As telehealth becomes a standard part of healthcare delivery, interoperability will play a crucial role in ensuring continuity of care across digital and in-person settings.

Standardization Initiatives

Ongoing efforts in standardization, such as the continued development of FHIR and other healthcare data standards, will shape the future of interoperability. Standardization initiatives aim to create a common language for healthcare data exchange, making it easier for different systems to communicate and share information. These standards will support the interoperability of emerging technologies and ensure that healthcare data remains consistent and interpretable across the healthcare ecosystem.

All these trends promise to enhance the quality of patient care, enable more efficient healthcare processes, and drive innovation in the healthcare industry. As interoperability continues to evolve, healthcare organizations and stakeholders must stay agile and adaptable to embrace these trends and realize the full potential of interconnected healthcare systems.

The Ongoing Journey of Healthcare Interoperability

In conclusion, healthcare interoperability is an ongoing journey marked by innovation and collaboration.

It’s a critical enabler of modern healthcare, overcoming technical, regulatory, and cultural challenges. Future possibilities include blockchain, AI, and patient empowerment. The recent COVID-19 pandemic highlights its importance in crises and research.

Collaboration among healthcare stakeholders, adherence to best practices, and data governance are essential for success. This journey prioritizes patient well-being, informed decisions, and a healthcare system that cares. It promises a brighter, healthier future, with patients at the center.

Curious how Interoperability is engrained in iCure? Try it for free and enhance your digital health app or medical device software with iCure’s powerful capabilities.


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Please, note that the term of processing of such request can take up to one month. Contact: privacy@icure.com

6. Modification

iCure expressly reserves the right to modify this Privacy Policy and you undertake to regularly review the Privacy Policy. By amending the Privacy Policy, iCure will consider your legitimate interests. You will receive a notification if the Privacy Policy is modified. By continuing to actively use the iCure Services after such notification, you acknowledge that you have read the modifications to the Privacy Policy.

7. Information Sharing

Our employees and/or authorized contractors are the people in charge of the Data Processing.

iCure does not sell, rent, or lease any individual’s personal information or lists of email addresses to anyone for marketing purposes, and we take commercially reasonable steps to maintain the security of this information.

However, iCure reserves the right to supply any such information to any organization into which iCure may merge in the future or to which it may make any transfer in order to enable a third party to continue part or all of its mission.

We also reserve the right to release personal information to protect our systems or business when we reasonably believe you to be in violation of our Terms of Use and Privacy Policy or if we reasonably believe you to have initiated or participated in any illegal activity.

In addition, please be aware that in certain circumstances, iCure may be obligated to release your personal information pursuant to judicial or other government subpoenas, warrants, or other orders.

8. Links to other Websites

This Website may provide links to third-party websites (Instagram and Linkedin) for the convenience of our users. If you access those links, you will leave this website. iCure does not control these third-party websites and cannot represent that their policies and practices will be consistent with this Privacy Policy. For example, other websites may collect or use personal information about you in a manner different from that described in this document. Therefore, you should use other websites with caution and do so at your own risk. We encourage you to review the privacy policy of any website before submitting personal information.

9. Cookies

To get more information on how iCure uses Matomo’s cookies, please check our Cookie Notice.

10. Contact

Please contact us with any questions or comments about this Policy, your Personal Data, and our use and disclosure practices by email at privacy@icure.com If you have any concerns or complaints about this Policy or your Personal Data, you may contact our DPO at privacy@icure.com.

Please, note that the term of processing of such request can take up to one month.

iCure SA

Contact : privacy@icure.com

Last update: July the 26th, 2023.

Information Security Policy


1. Introduction

The iCure universe is built on trust. Guaranteeing the confidentiality of the data that are entrusted to us is our highest priority.

The Information Security Policy of iCure abstracts the security concept that permeates every activity and abides by the ISO 27001:2013 requirements for Information Security, so that we ensure the security of the data that iCure and its clients manage.

Every employee, contractor, consultant, supplier and client of iCure is bound by our Information Security Policy.

2. Our Policy

iCure is committed to protecting the confidentiality, integrity and availability of the service it provides and the data it manages. iCure also considers protecting the privacy of its employees, partners, suppliers, clients and their customers as a fundamental security aspect.

iCure complies with all applicable laws and regulations regarding the protection of information assets and voluntarily commits itself to the provisions of the ISO 27001:2013.

3. Information Security Definitions

Confidentiality refers to iCure’s ability to protect information against disclosure. Attacks, such as network reconnaissance, database breaches or electronic eavesdropping or inadvertent information revealing through poor practices.

Integrity is about ensuring that information is not tampered with during or after submission. Data integrity can be compromised by accident or on purpose, by evading intrusion detection or changing file configurations to allow unwanted access.

Availability requires organizations to have up-and-running systems, networks, and applications to guarantee authorized users’ access to information without any interruption or waiting. The nature of data entrusted to us requires a higher-than-average availability.

Privacy is the right of individuals to control the collection, use, and disclosure of their personal information. Our privacy policies are based on the GDPR(https://gdpr-info.eu/) and can be augmented by added requirements of specific clients or law areas.

4. Risk Assessment

The main threats iCure is facing as a company are:

  1. Data Theft;
  2. Data Deletion;
  3. Denial of Service attacks;
  4. Malware;
  5. Blackmail and Extortion.

As providers of a solution used by developers active in Healthcare, we also have to anticipate the risks of:

  1. Attacks on our clients’ data, which could lead to major social damages and a loss of trust in our solution;
  2. Abuse of our solution by ill-intentioned clients, that could impact the quality of the service provided to the rest of our clients.

The motivation of the attackers in the latter cases can range from financial gain to political or ideological motivations.

A last risk is linked to the nature of the healthcare data we handle. We must ensure, that the data we handle are not used for purposes other than those for which they were collected:

A piece of data collected from a patient for the purpose of a medical consultation should not be available to third parties, not even a government agency.

5. Risk Management

The main principles we apply to manage the risks we face are:

  1. Confidentiality by design: All sensitive data is encrypted end-to-end before being stored in our databases. We do not have any access to the data we store. Our client’s customers are the only ones who can decrypt the data we store.
  2. Anonymization by design: Healthcare information that has to be stored unencrypted is always anonymized using end-to-end encryption scheme. This means that the link between the healthcare and administrative information must be encrypted.

Those two principles allow us to minimize the risks of data theft, blackmail, extortion, and coercion by government agency.

  1. Multiple real-time replicas, with automatic failover: We use a distributed database architecture to ensure that our data is available at all times. We use a master-master architecture, each data is replicated at least 3 times. Snapshots are taken every day to ensure that we can restore the data in case of a malevolent deletion event.
  2. Automatic password rotations: no single password can be used for more than 48 hours. Passwords are automatically rotated every 24 hours. In case of a password leak, we can limit the window of opportunity for an attack.

Those two principles allow us to minimise the risks of data deletion, denial of service attacks, and malware.

  1. Minimization of the attack surface: we deploy our systems in the most minimal way. We only expose the network services that are strictly necessary.
  2. Strict dependency management: we only use open-source software that is regularly updated and audited by the community. We favor dependency management software and providers that minimize the risk of supply chain poisoning.

Those two principles allow iCure to minimise the risks of intrusion by vulnerability exploit or supply chain attacks, two risks that could lead to data theft or data deletion.

6. Further Information

This policy is valid as of November 10th, 2022. For futher information please connect with us at privacy@icure.com


iCure SA

Rue de la Fontaine 7, 1204 Geneva, Switzerland


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